Owning a dog is a rewarding experience for families. Breeding is a great way to carry on your puppy’s genes. People breed dogs for various reasons. However, there are plenty of dog breeding pros and cons to consider before making it a business.
From health issues and diseases to complications, breeding may increase or decrease the quality of health. There are also legal facts and expenses you need to know before you start your breeding business. So, if you’re interested in dog breeding, this guide is for you.
Before scrolling down this guide, “Dog Breeding Pros and Cons,” you can check out these other related content from our team at We Love Doodles: Negative Reinforcement Dog Training Guide and How to Train a Dog with a Shock Collar.
What You Need to Know About Dog Breeding
Dog breeding is the artificial selection of dogs. Before the process starts, breeders ensure the health of both the male and female. Males can start breeding between six months to a year of age. Females often start later, after they go in heat—the average female dog breeds around 18 months.
However, the American Kennel Club recommends females wait until two years to breed. Before breeding, females should be ready emotionally and physically. Females should be of ideal weight, muscle tone, and mentally prepared.
There’s additional testing that takes place before breeding, which includes the following:
- Genetic testing
- Health testing
- Conformation testing
- Temperament testing
Genetic testing ensures whether a dog is or isn’t purebred. Health testing ensures that possible diseases or disorders won’t affect the future puppy. If so, the male or female may not qualify for breeding.
Conformation testing ensures that the dogs pass physical requirements. Physical qualities include structure and appearance based on the breed. Lastly, temperament testing is the likelihood of human interaction. If all tests come back normal, breeding can occur.
The breeder’s job is to ensure they’re healthy and clean while detecting any health issues. An essential part of breeding is making sure they go to proper owners. While there are dog breeding pros and cons, seeing the end product of a healthy puppy is one of the most significant advantages.
Related: How to Use an E-Collar to Train Your Dog.
Pros of Dog Breeding
Regarding the dog breeding pros and cons list, creating newer dog breeds is a significant advantage. While it’s a complicated process, the benefits outweigh the cons. As a result, many new species have formed over the last fifty years. For instance, due to the rise of allergies, many dog breeds are hypoallergenic due to Poodle mixes.
Although no breed is free from allergens, the chances are less. The Labradoodle is an excellent example of having a family-friendly puppy. While it has a fun, gentle personality, it also lacks shedding. Another excellent quality is the creation of designer breeds.
Designer dogs are great for smaller homes and yards. However, some breeders take advantage since they are lucrative in breeding. Designer dog breeds allow certain people to become down owners. But, whether it’s living conditions or less shedding, breeding has advantages.
1. Selective Breeding
Another benefit is selective breeding. Specialized breeding ensures the removal of specific mental or physical characteristics. The process is natural while preserving desired traits. The breeding technique helps improve intelligence, physical characteristics, skills, and health conditions.
Examples of specialized dogs include hunting dogs and police dogs. Another example of selective breeding is Border Collies. Breeding helped their size, agility, and comprehension over the years. When done right, breeding improves the quality of life.
2. Health Improvements
Breeding, many health conditions can decrease, including allergies, epilepsy, and elbow dysplasia. Preserving breeds is another advantage. Many species are disappearing due to trends and lifestyles. For example, the Yorkshire Terrier breed’s goal was to kill rodents.
While we don’t need dogs to kill rodents as we did years ago, today, they’re purposeful in different ways. Overall, many dogs wouldn’t be either extinct or endangered without breeding. Although there are great reasons to continue breeding dogs, there are also disadvantages.
Related: What Should I Do If My Dog Chewed Through His Crate?
Cons of Dog Breeding
Along with its advantages, there are also dog breeding cons to keep in mind. From health risks and conditions to vet expenses, it’s essential to be aware of the downsides. Emotionally and physically, breeding can affect your dog’s livelihood.
Selective breeding can have negative consequences. Many times, visual characteristics become more important to breeders. Inbreeding causes many issues, as well as an increase in diseases.
1. Health Risks and Conditions
During the breeding process, the female can become injured. Also, life-threatening health conditions can occur during pregnancy. For example, females who have given birth have a higher chance of breast and ovarian cancers. There’s also a high risk of complications after birth if the dog remains unsupervised.
In some situations, death can occur. It’s essential to be aware of genetic defects before breeding. Certain breeds have specific risk factors. If the condition is dominant and one parent has the gene, it’ll typically show in the next generation.
However, in some cases, the disease is mild or may skip a generation. Recessive genes need two abnormal genes for inheritance. When this occurs, the condition is harder to detect. Plus, it may appear in future generations when bred with a dog with the same recessive gene.
Breeds that do test positive for genetic health issues should seek a veterinarian. From there, the vet may decide if the dog is ready for clearance and fill out paperwork before breeding. Sometimes, approval comes without an added charge.
The cost of breeding adds up from food and licensing to vet expenses. The average fee per dog is roughly a thousand dollars per year. When operating a large kennel, you also have maintenance of the building and rent to pay.
Whether your dog is small or large, vet expenses range from vaccinations to deworming. While you may spend thousands of dollars, pregnant female puppies are also expensive.
Additional expenses throughout the birthing process include the following:
- Ultrasounds, x-rays
- Prenatal, birth, and postnatal care
- Progesterone shots
- Stud-service fee
- Brucellosis testing
- Health clearance
Other dog breeding expenses include the following:
- Whelping box and kit
- Medical expenses
- AKC litter registration
Sometimes euthanization occurs when puppies are born with health defects. It’s an unfortunate, unexpected expense and one of the dog breeding cons. Many breeders hold high standards with genetic testing before breeding. However, health conditions and diseases can still occur.
3. American Kennel Club Registration
It’s vital to register each litter to the American Kennel Club after birth. You can easily register online or download the application and send it directly to the club. Either way, you’ll fill out the necessary paperwork. If you choose the online registration, you’ll receive your litter kit in two to five business days.
Registering the puppies is not only a document but a record of their existence in the breeding program. The American Kennel Club allows new owners to access information and services. Additionally, registered dogs may attend events sponsored by the AKC. Plus, it shows that you’re a responsible breeder. Filing paperwork out is especially helpful for the new owners.
Then, when the new puppies sell, breeders can immediately give them a registration application. The cost of breeding can range from 1,000 to over 8,000 dollars. While it takes knowledge, it’s also an investment of your time and finances. While paperwork and registration are a hassle, it’s good to think ahead.
Related: Best Training Collars For Small Dogs.
Dog Breeding Regulations
Although dog breeding is legal, some states require licensing. Therefore, dog breeders must fill out tax forms. Seeking advice from a tax advisor is helpful for expenses. So, keeping all bookkeeping up to date and organized is essential. For breeders with a booming business, creating another bank account is essential.
Therefore, you have a paper trail of all activities and transactions if you get audited. To be safe, hold all tax records for up to seven years. Many breeders don’t need an official permit or license but must know the law and restrictions. For instance, you must know the number of dogs allowed in your yard or property.
Additionally, each puppy must obtain registration and wear a tag and a collar. If you’re a commercial breeder, rules may differ. A commercial breeder breeds a more significant number of dogs, more than 20 annually. Commercial breeders follow regulations and apply for a commercial breeding license.
Sadly, not all breeders adhere to specific quality standards of care. Low-quality breeders lead to overbreeding, strays, and death. However, there are stricter laws in place to correct these issues. Depending on where you live, breeders register in a central database.
If breeders abuse dogs in any way, they’re susceptible to animal abuse or neglect. For breeders to continue, they cannot be guilty of animal cruelty. Despite the pros and cons of dog breeding, many breeders are responsible.
Conclusion For “Dog Breeding Pros and Cons”
Regarding dog breeding, there’s much to know about males and females. Awareness of testing, genes, and potential diseases and health conditions is essential. In addition, expenses add up for the business and care for prenatal and postnatal care. Therefore, adhering to guidelines is not only responsible but legal.
From hypoallergenic dogs to selecting breeding, breeding is hard work. There are many expenses in addition to dog breeding pros and cons. However, it certainly can be a rewarding experience. So, now your guide to dog breeding is complete, and you’re ready to make an informed decision in your journey.
For more guides on raising your puppy, you can check out:
- When is a Dog Old Enough For a Shock Collar?
- Best Shock Collars For a Biting Puppy
- How to Take Care of a Pomapoo
You can learn more about dog breeding by watching “9 Things You Need to Consider Before Becoming a Dog Breeder” down below:
Garrett loves animals and is a huge advocate for all Doodle dog breeds. He owns his own Goldendoodle named Kona. In addition, he volunteers at the Humane Society of Silicon Valley, where he fosters dogs and helps animals. Garrett enjoys writing about Doodles and believes that dogs can teach humans more about how to live than humans can teach a dog.
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